Karaim (Karaites) Jews and their customs on the pictures below. Russia 1800 - 1900
Karaite is an Anglicized form of the Hebrew word Karaim or Bnei Mikra, which means "Followers of Scripture".

Karaim, Russia 1860
Karaim Jews Russia in 1860s

Karaim Family Russia in 1860s

Karaim Women, Russia 1800s
Karaim Women Russia in 1880s

Women Dress in karaim museum Trakai (Karaite Ethnographic Museum in Trakai)
Karaim Women Russia in museum Trakai

All the above are classic examples of the Karaim life in Russia before 1900


The greatly reduced Khazar kingdom in Tauris, the survival of a mighty empire, was able to hold its own for nearly half a century, until in the eleventh century it fell a prey to the Russians and Byzantines (1016). The relatives of the last khagan fled, according to tradition, to their coreligionists in Spain. The Khazar nation was scattered, and was subsequently lost among the other nations. The remnants of the Khazars in the Crimea who professed Judaism were in all likelihood merged with the native Jews, consisting partly of Rabbanites and partly of Karaites / Karaims. In this way the ancient Jewish settlements on the Crimean Peninsula suddenly received a large increase. At the same time the influx of Jewish immigrants, who, together with the Greeks, moved from Byzantium towards the northern shores of the Black Sea, continued as theretofore, the greater part of these immigrants consisting of Karaites, who were found in large numbers in the Byzantine Empire.

Beginning with 1428, the old Karaite / Karaim community of Chufut-Kale ("the Eock of the Jews"), situated near the new Tatar capital, Bakhchi-Sarai, grows in numbers and influence. The memory of this community is perpetuated by a huge number of tombstones, ranging from the thirteenth to the eighteenth century. Crimea, now peopled with Jews, sends forth settlers to Lithuania, where, at the end of the fourteenth century, Grand Duke Vitovt * takes them under his protection. Crimean colonies spring up in the Lithuanian towns of Troki and Lutzk, which, as will be seen later, are granted extensive privileges by the ruler of the land.

On the picture above may be the most eminent Karaite scholar of 
the 19th century, and the most active champion of the Karaite struggle
for civil rights Abraham b. Samuel Firkovich (17871874)
whose advent upon the scene opened a new chapter in Karaite
	In the 17th and 19th centuries, Karaite activity
shifted to the Crimea and Lithuania, and Karaites in these areas
assumed leadership of the sect.

	In 1835 Karaites succeeded in having the
Rabbanite Jews of Troki expelled from the town, on the basis
of ancient Lithuanian privileges which granted them the sole
right of settlement there. They also achieved a change in their
official designation; instead of "Jews-Karaites" they first came
to be called "Russian Karaites of the Old Testament Faith," and
eventually simply "Karaites."
	Number of Karaites in Russia: according to official figures, their
number (including all areas of former Poland and Lithuania)
had grown to 9,725 in 1879)
[ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 11].

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